Wednesday, 30 July 2008

Tuesday, 29th July 2008


WTO talks collapse over farm trade

GENEVA: After seven years of on-again, off-again negotiations, world trade talks collapsed in rancor on Tuesday, ending hopes of a deal to free up global markets, cut farm subsidies and shore up the international trading system.
Discussions here reached an impasse after nine straight days of high-level talks when the United States, India and China failed to compromise over measures to protect farmers in poor countries.
Despite exhaustive efforts, Pascal Lamy, director general of the World Trade Organization, failed to bridge differences between a group of newly-confident developing nations and established Western economic powers. In the end too few of the real power-brokers proved committed enough to make compromises necessary to deliver a deal.
"It is a massive blow to confidence in the global economy," said Peter Power, spokesman for the European Commission, the executive arm of the European Union based in Brussels. "The confidence shot in the arm that we needed badly will not now happen."


In rural Japan, a shortage of lawyers

YAKUMO, Japan: There was no inherent reason that this northern Japanese town, population 19,743, had never had a lawyer until now. It had its share of people with debts, disputes over property, wrangling over inheritances - enough disharmony, certainly, to keep at least one lawyer busy.
But Japan, as a counterpoint to the United States, has long suffered from a shortage of lawyers, especially in the countryside.
If it was not unusual for towns with five times Yakumo's population to have no lawyer, how could Yakumo hope to secure one just for itself?
And yet, thanks to a national campaign to raise the number of lawyers, and to dispatch them to lawyerless corners of Japan, Yakumo welcomed its first one in April. The Yakumo Legal Office opened shop, behind gray blinds and under blue awnings, in the square facing the train station.


World's most expensive cups of coffee

Vladimir Ilyich Lenin must be rolling over in his grave. Just 17 years after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the one-time capital of communism is now home to the world's most expensive cup of coffee. The average cup of joe in Moscow is $10.19, including service, according to a new survey by the London office of U.S. consulting firm Mercer.

The rest of Europe isn't much kinder - coffee is $6.77 in Paris and $6.62 in Athens. International travelers looking to satisfy their caffeine cravings should look to South America and Africa for relief: At $2.03 per cup in Buenos Aires and $2.36 in Johannesburg, both continents offer relief to cash-strapped java seekers. New York is far from the most expensive, weighing in at a mere $3.75.



Eight cups a day

And so they [European coffee marketers] all must be delighted at the June issue of "Stroke," a journal of the American Heart Association, which has published a new study asserting that "high consumption of coffee and tea may reduce the risk of cerebral infarction (embolic strokes) among men."

The study, conducted in coffee-mad Finland, was managed by the Karolinska Institute of Stockholm and the National Public Health Institute, Helsinki. Researchers recruited 29,133 Finnish men aged 50 to 69 in 1985 and followed them for several years. Those who consumed eight or more cups of coffee per day, the results indicated, had a 23 percent lower risk of cerebral infarction - the most common kind of stroke.
"Beneficial effects of consumption ... are biologically plausible because coffee and tea contain phenolic compounds with antioxidant properties that may prevent atherosclerosis," the study asserts.



The End of Food By Paul Roberts

390 pages. $26. Houghton Mifflin Company.
Paul Roberts's prophetic and well-received 2004 book, "The End of Oil: On the Edge of a Perilous New World," anticipated the current energy crisis. Now he's moved on to what we put in our mouths. Roberts's new book, "The End of Food," which takes into account a vertiginous pile of recent developments - including the so-called tortilla riots of 2007, during which thousands took to the Mexico City streets to protest the rapidly rising cost of maize - may prove no less prescient.

A contributor to Harper's and other magazines, Roberts sketches a dire present and ponders a bleak future. We have reached the end of the "golden age" of food, he writes. No longer do the things we eat "grow only more plentiful, more secure, more nutritious and simply better with each passing year." Instead, E. coli outbreaks "have almost become an annual autumn ritual," and a new day is arriving when "cost and convenience are dominant, the social meal is obsolete" and the act of eating has "devolved into an exercise in irritation, confusion and guilt."

Emirates airline to offer airborne showers


Virgin Galactic unveils space-tourism's mothership

MOJAVE, California: The space tourism race reached a milestone as the British mogul Richard Branson and an American aerospace designer, Burt Rutan, waved to a crowd from inside the cabin of a jet that will carry a passenger spaceship to launch altitude.
They were unveiling the White Knight Two mothership on Monday before a crowd of engineers, dignitaries and space enthusiasts at the Mojave Air & Space Port in the high desert north of Los Angeles.
The four-engine jet, with its 140-foot, or 43-meter, single wing, is an engineering marvel. The space between its twin fuselages is where SpaceShipTwo, the passenger rocket being built for Branson's Virgin Galactic, will be mounted.
White Knight Two, billed as the world's largest all-carbon-composite airplane, is "one of the most beautiful and extraordinary aviation vehicles ever developed," Branson proclaimed.


10 things to scratch from your worry list

2. Your car's planet-destroying A/C. No matter how guilty you feel about your carbon footprint, you don't have to swelter on the highway to the beach. After doing tests at 65 miles per hour, the mileage experts at report that the aerodynamic drag from opening the windows cancels out any fuel savings from turning off the air-conditioner.

3. Forbidden fruits from afar. Do you dare to eat a kiwi? Sure, because more "food miles" do not equal more greenhouse emissions. Food from other countries is often produced and shipped much more efficiently than domestic food, particularly if the local producers are hauling their wares around in small trucks. One study showed that apples shipped from New Zealand to Britain had a smaller carbon footprint than apples grown and sold in Britain.

5. Evil plastic bags. Take it from the Environmental Protection Agency : paper bags are not better for the environment than plastic bags. If anything, the evidence from life-cycle analyses favors plastic bags. They require much less energy — and greenhouse emissions — to manufacture, ship and recycle. They generate less air and water pollution. And they take up much less space in landfills.


Houston: the worst recycler among major U.S. cities

Houston recycles just 2.6 percent of its total waste, according to a study this year by Waste News, a trade magazine. By comparison, San Francisco and New York recycle 69 percent and 34 percent of their waste respectively. Moreover, 25,000 Houston residents have been waiting as long as 10 years to get recycling bins from the city

Louisianians cash in on gas rush

MANSFIELD, Louisiana: They had to repeat the amazing number, $28.7 million, over and over, to make sure it was real and would not go away. Even then, the members of the De Soto Parish Police Jury — the county commission — could hardly believe it.
They laughed, rocked back in their chairs, shook their heads, stared at the ceiling and muttered oaths to each other. "We have — $28.7 million," said the president, Bryant Yopp, to settle the matter, definitively if still incredulously. It was nearly one and a half times the parish's entire annual budget.
A no-holds-barred, all-American gold rush for natural gas is under way in this forgotten corner of the South, and De Soto Parish, with its fat check from a large energy company this month, is only the latest and largest beneficiary. The county leaders and everyone around them, for mile after mile, over to Texas and up to Arkansas, in the down-at-the-heels city of Shreveport and in its struggling neighbors, suddenly find themselves sitting on what could prove to be the largest natural gas deposit in the continental United States.


British Airways and Iberia announce merger plans

PARIS: British Airways and Iberia announced a merger plan Tuesday in what would be the first major alliance between European flag carriers since the recent surge in oil prices darkened the outlook for the aviation sector.


BP pledges fight to control Russian venture TNK-BP

LONDON: The chief executive of BP threatened his Russian partners with a long and hard fight in their battle for control of their joint oil venture, as the British company reported a better-than-expected quarterly profit.
Tony Hayward, chief of BP, said Tuesday that the company would use "all legal means" to fight the four Russian billionaires who own 50 percent of TNK-BP, the Russian oil producer.
Meanwhile, BP also reported a 28 percent rise in second quarter net profit to $9.47 billion on surging energy prices.
The TNK-BP chief executive, Bob Dudley, fled Russia last week, blaming a campaign of harassment started by the billionaires, who operate as the Alfa Access Renova consortium


More job cuts at General Motors

DETROIT: General Motors will eliminate shifts at two truck plants and lay off 1,760 workers to further reduce production of slow-selling pickups and sport utility vehicles.

GM, the biggest American automaker, said it would cut shifts at assembly plants in Moraine, Ohio, and Shreveport, Louisiana, and slow production at two other factories, one in Mexico and the other in Indiana.
The company also said it would idle several other assembly plants for various periods to address the shrinking demand for pickups and sport utility vehicles.

France's first lady compares self to Jackie Kennedy

LOS ANGELES: France's first lady, Carla Bruni-Sarkozy, said she sees herself as akin to former U.S. first lady Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, in an interview with a U.S. magazine released on Monday.
The former supermodel-turned-pop singer said she welcomes comparisons to Onassis, who is remembered for the stylish elegance she brought to the White House in the early 1960s during the presidency of her husband, John F. Kennedy.
"She was so young and modern, and of course unconsciously I would project myself more like Jackie Kennedy than, for instance, Madame de Gaulle, who would be much more like the classical French woman behind her husband," Bruni said in an interview with Vanity Fair magazine.


Shared bikes a success, Paris considers the car

Australia ends automatic detention for asylum seekers without visas

SYDNEY: Australia is ending its controversial policy of automatic detention for asylum seekers who arrive in the country without visas, the government announced Tuesday.
"Detention in immigration detention centers is only to be used as a last resort and for the shortest practicable time," Immigration Minister Chris Evans told an audience at the Australian National University in the capital, Canberra.
Children will no longer be held in detention centers, he said, while incarceration will be reserved for those suspected of posing a security threat. Adults who are detained will have their cases reviewed every three months.
"The presumption will be that persons will remain in the community while their immigration status is resolved," he said.
Previously, illegal immigrants who managed to make it to the Australian mainland were immediately sent to detention centers while the bureaucracy sifted through their claims for asylum, a process that could take years.

Greenway: The seeds of today's wars
Back in the days when the Indochina wars were on everyone's mind, a droll newspaperman, Martin F. Nolan, observed that "when the American people have to know when a country's rainy season is, we are already in too deep."
I remembered that recently when I read about Saddam Hussein's tattoo.
Saddam had three dots tattooed on his wrist to identify himself as a member of the Albu Nasir tribe. It was once all important to be an Albu Nasirman as the tribe dominated the government of Iraq in Saddam's era. His inner circle was made up of fellow tribesmen and family, for in Iraq tribe and family are often the only entities you can trust.
To understand the ebb and flow of today's wars, Americans have to know about the poisonous mix of familial, tribal, ethnic, linguistic, racial and religious factions at play in both Iraq and Afghanistan.
Families are important. You can't understand the Kurdish region unless you know the history of the Barzani and Talibani families, who are at peace today but have often warred. And there are Iraqis who will tell you that the Baghdad government's spring crackdown against the Mahdi Army was really about an enduring struggle between the Hakim family and the Sadrs.
To understand Afghanistan, Americans have to learn about Uzbeks, Hazaras, Turkmens, and Tajiks, as well as Pushtuns, and the families and loyalties of local warlords. Hamid Karzai may be president of the country, but as far as power and authority goes, people say he is only the mayor of Kabul.
Americans believe they are in a struggle with Islamic extremism, but for the countries in which they fight, it's more about power and identity than religion. Americans may not need to know so much about rainy seasons any more, but they have to mind the tribal tattoos on wrists.

Missile strike in Pakistan may have killed senior Qaeda operative
ISLAMABAD: Pakistan is investigating reports that a senior Qaeda figure was among six people killed in a suspected U.S. missile strike amid anger that the nation's sovereignty had been violated.
The Pakistani Army said it had not confirmed that the strike Monday killed the Qaeda operative, Abu Khabab al-Masri, who is described by Washington as an expert who trained terrorists in the use of poisons and explosives.
Bush praises Pakistan just hours after U.S. strike
WASHINGTON: President George W. Bush praised Pakistan's commitment to fighting the Taliban and other extremists along its deteriorating border with Afghanistan on Monday, only hours after an American missile strike destroyed a militant outpost in that region, killing six, according to administration and Pakistani officials.
Bush, meeting with Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gilani at the White House, sought to minimize the administration's concerns about Pakistan's willingness to fight extremists along its border with Afghanistan.
Afghans say time for Pakistani action on militants
KABUL: Afghanistan said on Tuesday that after the Pakistani prime minister made a commitment to U.S. President George W. Bush to secure the border with Afghanistan, it was now time for Pakistan to take action.
India and Pakistan trade fire in Kashmir
SRINAGAR, India: Indian and Pakistani soldiers traded fire across the heavily armed Kashmir frontier for more than 12 hours overnight and into Tuesday in what the Indian army called the worst violation of a 2003 cease-fire agreement between the nuclear-armed neighbors.
The night-long gunbattle came after one Indian soldier and four Pakistanis were killed Monday along the heavily armed frontier that divides Indian- and Pakistani-controlled Kashmir, the Indian army said. Pakistan denied its soldiers were killed.
No further casualties were reported Tuesday.
Police defuse bombs found in western Indian city
AHMEDABAD, India: Police defused several unexploded bombs in the western Indian city of Surat, one of the world's biggest diamond-polishing centres, on Tuesday, three days after a series of blasts in the same state killed 45 people.
"We have defused seven bombs and (are) working on three more," senior police official H.P. Singh told Reuters.

Earthquake shakes Southern California
LOS ANGELES: A strong earthquake shook Southern California on Tuesday, causing buildings to sway and triggering some precautionary evacuations. No immediate damage was reported.
The jolt was felt from Los Angeles to San Diego, and slightly in Las Vegas.
Preliminary information from the U.S. Geological Survey estimated the quake at magnitude 5.8, centered 29 miles, or 47 kilometers, east-southeast of downtown Los Angeles, near Chino Hills in San Bernardino County.
The quake struck just before noon in California. Buildings swayed in downtown Los Angeles for several seconds.

Book Review
This Land is Their Land
Reports From a Divided Nation By Barbara Ehrenreich
235 pages. $24. Metropolitan Books/Henry Holt & Co.
In the milder last years of the Franco era in Spain, with the regime doing more appealing than dictating to the public, roadside signs went up warning of wildfires: "When the Forest Burns It Is Your Forest Burning." Soon a derisive "Sir Count!" could be read scrawled at the end of one of them.
Similarly, the title of Barbara Ehrenreich's latest sortie to skewer the skewed balances of power and privilege in America. Taking Woody Guthrie's famous line "This Land Is Your Land," she replaces "Your" with "Their."
Ehrenreich has long been a happy warrior sallying forth against what she regards as the Big Lie about equal opportunity in our society. She unhoods the wink, you might say: She peels away the myths she sees pacifying the overwhelming (and overwhelmed) majority in the interests of a manipulative minority.

U.S. plans expanded role for air power in Iraq
Also on trial at Guantánamo: The tribunal system
The chief Guantánamo prosecutor, Colonel Lawrence Morris of the Army, said this first Guantánamo tribunal was "the most just war crimes trial that anybody has ever seen."
Matt Pollard, a legal adviser for Amnesty International who is an observer here, sees it differently. He said he was struck by a sense that the proceedings were more of a replica of a trial than a real one.
"We are within a frame of a beautiful picture," created by the Pentagon, Pollard said. "When you're inside that frame, everything looks nice."
A federal judge in Washington, James Robertson, refused a last-minute plea by Hamdan's lawyers to stop this trial. But in his July 18 ruling, Robertson said serious questions remained about the system here, calling it "startling" that evidence obtained through coercive interrogations was permitted to be used in trials. He added that "the eyes of the world are on Guantánamo Bay."
But with the trial inaccessible to the public and no broadcast television cameras in the courtroom, reporters are the only way for the wider world to know what is transpiring. The Pentagon's public relations theme has been "transparency," yet the freedom of the press has its limits at Guantánamo.
Legal documents are often released months after they are filed with the military commission, if at all. Military officials run and attend news conferences, for both the prosecution and the defense. Reporters are accompanied by military escorts almost everywhere, including to meals and court.
When a reporter noted that in America reporters are permitted to see witnesses and evidence, a spokeswoman for the Pentagon's Office of Military Commissions, Major Gail Crawford, responded, "This is not America."
The agents acknowledged that it was official policy to deviate from their normal procedure of informing Hamdan of any constitutional rights.
One of the agents, George Crouch Jr., testified that he had helped arrange in June 2002 for Hamdan to call his family. Hamdan, who had been in custody for seven months and had been allowed no contact with the outside world, "was concerned that they would think he was dead," the agent testified.
Pollard said holding someone incommunicado for months sounded like the kind of "disappearances" practiced by other countries. But in the court at Guantánamo, the reference did not cause a ripple.
The repeated interrogations of Hamdan have caused him to sometimes think the trial is just another method of interrogation, a psychiatrist who interviewed him here testified. "He doesn't know if this court is real," the psychiatrist, Dr. Emily Keram, said.
Some lawyers said the ruling suggested that other parts of the Constitution, like the Fifth Amendment's right against self-incrimination, might apply here, too.
That could have undercut the case against Hamdan. But the military judge, Captain Keith Allred of the Navy, ruled that "the Fifth Amendment of the Constitution does not apply to protect Hamdan."
Even so, the judge excluded some of Hamdan's statements, saying they were given in the "highly coercive environment" of an Afghan prison. But he allowed many other statements by Hamdan to be entered as evidence, including some that defense lawyers contend were coerced.
One of the FBI agents, Ammar Barghouty, said Hamdan seemed to realize during the interrogations that he had few options. "A drowning man will reach for a twig, and I am a drowning man," Barghouty quoted Hamdan as saying.
A prosecution witness presented an organizational table of Al Qaeda's leadership from when Hamdan was part of bin Laden's security detail. The chart included an entry for the head of the detail, a Moroccan, Abdellah Tabarak, who himself was held at Guantánamo. He was released in 2004.
Asked about the unusual circumstance that an employee was on trial while a man who may have been his boss had been released, a Pentagon spokesman, Commander Jeffrey Gordon, said, "The transfer of detainees takes various factors into consideration," including a receiving country's promise "to mitigate the threat."
Ben Wizner, an American Civil Liberties Union lawyer who is an observer here, said the experiences of Tabarak and Hamdan seemed to underscore the contradictions of the legal system at Guantánamo.
Wizner said there was a more fundamental contradiction underlying the trial. The Bush administration insists that even if a detainee is acquitted, officials could decide to hold him indefinitely.
"Where else in the world," Wizner said after court one day, "is someone being prosecuted for a crime who is already serving a life sentence and will continue to serve one if he's acquitted?"
Long-time Alaska senator faces federal criminal charges
U.S. Justice Department report concludes politics illegally affected hiring

Israeli forces kill Palestinian boy
RAMALLAH, West Bank: Israeli soldiers shot dead a Palestinian boy during clashes with stone-throwing protesters on Tuesday in the occupied West Bank, hospital officials and witnesses said.
Palestinian witnesses and medical officials said the 10-year-old boy had been shot in the head near the West Bank village of Nilin, where demonstrators gather almost daily to protest against the construction of Israel's barrier in the West Bank.
Over 2,000 raped last month in Congo's east
KINSHASA: More than 2,000 rape cases were recorded last month alone in Democratic Republic of Congo's violent North Kivu province, a new report said on Tuesday, highlighting the failure of a U.N.-backed deal to deliver peace.
Many more women and girls were raped but did not report it, the document added, saying that, since the signing of a January 23 deal between rebels, militia and government, 150,000 civilians had fled their homes amid continuing "horrendous violence".

8 arrested in England for insider trading
LONDON: The Financial Services Authority, the British financial regulator, said eight people were arrested Tuesday across London and southeastern England as part of a major inquiry into insider trading.
In a statement, the regulator said 40 of its staff members, backed by officers from the City of London police, also conducted searches across the region.
"This is a major investigation for the FSA," a spokeswoman for the agency said, declining to be identified by name or to provide further details. The police declined to comment.
From the same streets, taking different routes
Steven Gerrard, the Liverpool captain, was honored over the weekend with a fellowship from John Moores University in his home city.
As he stood on the platform in full academic regalia, another soccer player from the same streets, Joey Barton, was packing his single bag for an early release from jail. Barton had served time for violent assault.
They are products of the same environment, sons of broken families in a tough but vibrant city which has a sporting pulse. Gerrard's fame includes having received the Freedom of the Borough in which he was born, as well as the alumni award bestowed last Friday, but it is Barton who once put into words the meaning of life in their district: "Where I'm from," Barton told the British newspaper The People in December 2006, "you either work hard in school to get out, or you escape through sport. The other option is loitering, crime, drugs and prison."
Barton has played just 12 minutes for England, as a late substitute in a losing performance against Spain. Gerrard has captained England during some of his 67 national team appearances.
The future is uncertain for Barton. His release from a Manchester prison Monday, after serving 74 days of his six-month sentence, prompted a nationwide debate on the system of early parole from England's crowded prisons - and a summons to his club, Newcastle United, for management talks regarding a reduction on his wage of £71,000, or $141,000, a week.
It was in Manchester that Barton beat up a teammate, Ousmane Dabo, so severely during a training session that Dabo was treated in a hospital for what was suspected to be a detached retina.
That incident came after Barton stubbed out a cigarette in the eye of a junior Manchester City player at a Christmas party, and after he was sent home from a pre-season tour of Thailand for punching a 15-year-old Everton supporter. But while the Dabo incident brought a four-month suspended jail sentence, he was arrested in Liverpool last Dec. 27 for the crime that led to his imprsionment.
He, a younger brother and a female companion were convicted of assaulting a teenager outside a McDonald's restaurant at 5.30 a.m. While Barton's solicitor pleaded that he had lost his temper after being goaded because "his face made him an easy target," the magistrate concluded that she had to consider the safety of the public. Closed-circuit television footage caught the assault on camera, and Barton was jailed.

The world stops here.

Ce plateau, appelé les Hautes de Chaumes,
est en partie classé « Site Natura 2000 ».


La fourme est un fromage de vache au lait cru, dont la pâte fondante est finement persillée. Sa croûte est épaisse et longuement travaillée par le temps. De forme cylindrique, la fourme mesure 22 cm de hauteur et 13 cm de diamètre.

Bringing the cows in for evening milking.

Nos fourmes sont d’une étonnante richesse aromatique de part nos pratiques agricoles et fromagères. Par ailleurs, selon les saisons, les pâturages, et les aléas d’une fabrication fermière, nous disposons au sein de notre production, de fourmes plus ou moins bleues, fondante, acides, piquantes.





La traite en estive

Sur ces pâturages d’altitude, et en alternance chaque années, nous faisons les foins. Nous avons fait ce choix pour deux raisons : d’une part, les terrains de Valcivières ne sont pas mécanisables car trop accidentés ; d’autre part, la diversité et la richesse floristique des parcelles des Hautes Chaumes concourent à la qualité du lait pendant l’hiver.


dans le Forez, les paysans partageaient leur vie entre deux habitats :
en hiver, ils vivaient dans la vallée et en période estivale,
montaient sur le plateau des Hautes Chaumes.
L’été, chaque membre de la famille a son rôle à jouer dans la bonne marche de la ferme :les femmes, les enfants et les vieillards des différentes familles se retrouvent en estive afin de s’occuper des bêtes, de la traite, et de la fabrication du fromage ; tandis que les hommes restent dans la vallée pour se consacrer aux travaux des champs.
En été la production de lait étant plus abondante, il est alors nécessaire de trouver un moyen de conservation adéquat. La fourme, fromage au lait de vache est née de cette transformation du lait en estive. Cette technique a tout d’abord permis de constituer des réserves pour l’hiver puis très vite, devient une activité commerciale à part entière.
Aujourd’hui, seuls quelques paysans comme ceux de la Ferme des Hautes Chaumes, continuent de pratiquer l’estive et la fabrication de la fourme en montagne.

Cahier des charges

La fabrication de notre fourme respecte un cahier des charges rigoureux garantissant un fromage de qualité :

  • Un troupeau de race rustique « abondance » avec : un niveau de production adapté à la montagne (faible mais de qualité) ; une bonne résistance aux aléas climatiques ; une bonne aptitude à la marche (bon aplomb).

  • Des vaches nourries sans ensilage (foin de montagne en hiver), et qui pâturent en estive pendant les mois d’été.

  • Un fromage à base de lait cru et entier.

  • Une sélection de ferments fermiers issus de l’exploitation (qualité et particularités gustatives propres).

  • Un brassage et un moulage à la main.

  • Un salage en croûte à 24h : 24h après fabrication, les fromages sont frottés au sel ; il n’y a pas de salage dans la masse. Cette technique permet d’obtenir un taux de sel très faible (2%).

  • Un ensemencement du fromage en Pénicillium Roqueforti s’effectue naturellement par sa présence dans les locaux.

  • Un affinage en cave de 6 mois. Celui-ci permet : une bonne maturité de la pâte, un développement optimum des arômes, et une croûte travaillée (épaisse et marquée par le temps).

  • Un développement du bleu par simple piquage quinze jours ou trois semaines avant la fin de l’affinage (le Pénicillium Roqueforti a besoin d’oxygène pour apparaître et se développer). Ce procédé permet d’obtenir un produit dans lequel le goût du bleu ne cache pas les arômes du lait.

Notre cahier des charges étant plus contraignant que celui de l'AOC, nous n'avons pas souhaité entrer dans cette démarche.

Les différentes étapes de fabrication de la fourme

Le lait

La traite a lieu deux fois par jour (matin et soir à heures fixes). Le soir, le lait est refroidit en cuve à 10°C, et ensemencé en ferments (bactéries lactiques).
Pendant la traite du matin, le lait de la veille est réchauffé et simultanément mélangé au lait frais.
Le mélange obtenu, légèrement acide, alors à 30°C, est prêt pour l’emprésurage.

Les différentes étapes de fabrication de la fourme

Le caillé

Environ 1h après, le résultat de l’emprésurage : le caillé, est prêt. Le caillé est l’état obtenu après coagulation du lait par l’action de la présure.
Découpé en cubes d’environ 1 cm de côtés, du caillé sort du petit lait.Intervient alors une alternance de brassage de l’ensemble, et de séparation de petit-lait par siphonage. L’objectif de ces opérations étant d’obtenir des grains de caillé relativement secs et indépendants les uns des autres (non agglomérés). Ces derniers permettront, au moment du moulage, de maintenir des espaces entre les grains de caillés dans lesquels se développera le bleu en fin d’affinage.

Les différentes étapes de fabrication de la fourme

Le moulage

Après environ une 1h de travail, le caillé est mis en moules de 30 cm de haut et 14 cm de diamètre. Cette opération est réalisée manuellement et nécessite une attention toute particulière afin d’obtenir un produit homogène.

Les différentes étapes de fabrication de la fourme

Les retournements

Les fromages sont retournés cinq fois dans les huit premières heures afin de favoriser un égouttage régulier.

Les différentes étapes de fabrication de la fourme

Le salage
24h après la mise en moule, les fourmes sont salées par un frottage en surface au gros sel. Grâce au phénomène d’osmose, le sel pénètre dans le fromage et l’eau en ressort. Cette méthode permet d’obtenir des fromages peu salés.
En effet, ceux-ci contiennent 2% de sel contre 4% pour des fromages fabriqués selon d’autres procédés.

Les différentes étapes de fabrication de la fourme

Le séchage

Il a pour objectif de créer une croûte qui protège les fromages avant leur entrée en cave. Cette étape dure de 4 à 7 jours à raison d’un retournement par jour.

Les différentes étapes de fabrication de la fourme


Après leur entrée en cave, les fromages seront tout d’abord retournés une fois par semaine pendant 5 mois ½ , puis interviendra alors le piquage. Celui-ci s’opère avec des aiguilles en inox et vise à permettre l’oxygénation du fromage et donc le développement du Pénicillium. A partir de là les fourmes sont régulièrement sondées afin de contrôler l’évolution du bleu dans le fromage et, en fonction en celle-ci, les mettre en vente.
Pour cette étape, nous avons construit une cave en pierres bâties à la chaux. Afin qu’elle soit protégée des variations de température extérieure et ait un maximum d’humidité, celle-ci est enterrée sous 2,5m de terre et dispose d’une source. Deux paramètres sont nécessaires à la bonne évolution des fourmes et restent donc constants : la température qui est de 10°C, et l’humidité qui s’élève à 95%.

Le troupeau

Notre troupeau est composé de 30 vaches laitières de race abondance (race rustique des Alpes) et de 20 génisses de zéro à trois ans, pour assurer le renouvellement. Ce cheptel nous permet la production de 120 000 litres de lait par an, transformés en totalité en fourmes ; soit environ 10 tonnes de fromages.
Nos bêtes sont majoritairement nourries à l’herbe. En fonction du niveau de production (plus de 15 litres de lait par jour et par vache), chaque vache sera susceptible de recevoir un complément de céréales et de colza pour assurer un bon équilibre alimentaire (glucides/protéines).

La ferme

Notre ferme s’anime autour : d’une étable avec un stockage de foin, de céréales, et de paille ; d’une fromagerie ; d’une cave pour l’affinage et le stockage des fourmes.
Autour de ce bâtiment, nous disposons d’une quinzaine d’hectares pour les pâturages d’automne et de printemps.
En période d’estive (de juin à octobre), les vaches pâturent sur les Hauts de Chaumes. Pour la traite, nous disposons d’un chariot de traite et d’une fromagerie mobiles. Ces installations nous permettent de déplacer le troupeau en fonction de la qualité de l’herbe et des pâturages.

Lieux de vente et partenaires
  • Nos marchés : Ambert (63) le jeudi, Le Puy en Velay (43) le samedi, Montbrison (42) le samedi
  • Nos revendeurs sur les marchés : P. Amerio marché de Fraisses (42) le mardi ; marché de Sury le Comtal (42) le mercredi ; marché de St Rambert (42) le jeudi ; marché de Veauche (42) le samedi ; St Marcellin en Forez (42) le dimanche. P. Gibert marché d'Albert Thomas à St Etienne (42) le samedi. F. Montel Besse (63) le lundi, Aubière (63) le dimanche.
  • Fromageries : Nivesse (Clermont-Fd, 63), SOFROSE (Severac le Chateau, 12), Houdot (Rungis, 94), Blanc (Vichy, 03), Meunier (Vichy, 03), laiterie Bourbonnaise (Moulin, 03), Fromagerie Ris (Ris, 03)
  • Les foires annuelles : Basse en Basset 43 (11 novembre), St Galmier 42 (25 Novembre), Foire aux champignons de St Bonnet le Froid 43 (fin Novembre), Fête de l'estive 12 (Début mai)
  • Nos partenaires gastronomiques : Hotel des voyageurs (Vertolaye, 63), Restaurant M. Bras (Laguiole, 12), Restaurant Vidal (St Julien Chapteuil, 43), Restaurant Tournayre (Le Puy en Velay, 43), restaurant la Terrasse (Saugues, 43), Le Coq Noir (col des Supeyres, 63), restaurant le 9ième art (St Just-St Rambert, 42)

Une fourme dans votre boite au lettre

Tarif des fourmes
Nombre de fourmes
1 30€
2 60€
3 85€

Pour une quantité plus importante nous contacter. Fourmes d'environ deux kilos. Les prix comprennent le port.
Bon de commande a télécharger :
bon_de_commande_fourme.pdf (pdf - 74 ko)



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